The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of
the food consumed by the world population. Only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what
they grow, and hunter-gatherers can be considered outside the scope of the modern food
industryThe term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the
processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs. The food industry
today has become highly diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, traditional,
family-run activities that are highly labor intensive, to large, capital-intensive and highly
mechanized industrial processes. Many food industries depend almost entirely on local
agriculture or fishing.
Food processing includes the methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for human consumption. Food processing takes clean, harvested or slaughtered and butchered components and uses them to produce marketable food products. There are several different ways in which food can be produced. One-off production: This method is used when customers make an order for something to be made to their own specifications, for example a wedding cake. The making of one-off products could take days depending on how intricate the design is. Batch production: This method is used when the size of the market for a product is not clear, and where there is a range within a product line. A certain number of the same goods will be produced to make up a batch or run, for example a bakery may bake a limited number of cupcakes. This method involves estimating consumer demand.
Mass production: This method is used when there is a mass market for a large number of identical products, for example chocolate bars, ready meals and canned food. The product passes from one stage of production to another along a production line. Just-in-time (JIT) (production): This method of production is mainly used in restaurants. All components of the product are available in-house and the customer chooses what they want in the product. It is then prepared in a kitchen, or in front of the buyer as in sandwich delicatessens, pizzerias, and sushi bars.