Proposed Safe Gaurd Duty On Solar Cells.
Solar panels absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat.
A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connect assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar
cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that
generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module
is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from
100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same
rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W
module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 22%
and reportedly also exceeding 24%. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount
of power; most installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes
an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a battery pack for storage, interconnection
wiring, and optionally a solar tracking mechanism.
The most common application of solar panels is solar water heating systems.
The price of solar power has continued to fall so that in many countries it is cheaper than ordinary fossil fuel electricity from the grid (there is "grid parity").
Depending on construction, photovoltaic modules can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence, much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar modules, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges. This has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. Scientists from Spectrolab, a subsidiary of Boeing, have reported development of multi-junction solar cells with an efficiency of more than 40%, a new world record for solar photovoltaic cells. The Spectrolab scientists also predict that concentrator solar cells could achieve efficiencies of more than 45% or even 50% in the future, with theoretical efficiencies being about 58% in cells with more than three junctions.